Time, Truth and Wisdom


CHAPTER 4     Science-The Evolution of Humankind




     I’m not going to go into a lot of detail in explaining the scientific viewpoint of the development of the human race. I will, however, give you an account of the scientific hypothesis of the advancement of humans from the hominid to modern-day human beings. This is the “human-tree” according to science:


     Orrorin Tugenensis, lived 6 million years ago, fossil remains found in Kenya in 2000. It is considered a true hominid and this species is considered to be the oldest-known member of the family to which humans belong. This species supposedly lived during a time when genetic analyses suggest our oldest hominid ancestor split from the oldest ancestor of the great apes. There is a chance that this species is the “missing link.” Evidence of this species includes a partial femur (thigh bone), bits of a lower jaw and several teeth.


     Ardipithecus ramidus, lived 4.4 million years ago, fossil remains found in Ethiopia in 1992-93. It is considered to be the oldest known hominid. Skeletal and indirect evidence indicate that it may have walked upright. Along with a partial lower jaw from a child this hominid shows an interesting mix of primitive and advanced characteristics.


     Australopithecus anamensis, lived 4.2-3.9 million years ago. Fossil remains found in Kenya in 1994. A partial tibia (largest of the two lower leg bones) suggests that it may have walked upright. In size and shape, its teeth were primitive relative to later hominids and suggest that it may have eaten hard-to-chew foods. Its teeth and jawbone are very large relative to its size.


     Australopithexus afarensis, lived 3.6-2.9 million years ago, fossil remains found in Ethiopia in 1973.  Because of the knee and pelvic bone structure, which are very similar to humans, scientists agree that it walked upright. It had a very low forehead, a face that projected far forward and a very prominent brow ridge. “Lucy” is thought to be a hominid of this same species, being approximately 3’6” tall, weighing 62 pounds and was 25 years old when she died. Her remains were discovered in 1974, also in Ethiopia.


     Kenyanthropus platyops, lived 3.5-3.3 million years ago. This hominid is also referred to as the “flat-faced man”. The traits of this hominid include small ear canals, a flattened face and small teeth.


     Australopithecus africanus, lived 3-2 million years ago, fossil remains found in South Africa in 1924. The upper and lower jaws were fully rounded like those of modern humans although the teeth were much larger than human teeth today. The scientific community initially rejected the identification of this partial skull, saying that it was some sort of extinct ape species rather than an early form of hominid.


     Other fossils related to this particular hominid are called “Mrs. Ples”, discovered in 1947 in South Africa and “STS 14”, discovered in 1947 in South Africa. The remains of this small adult female include a nearly complete vertebral column, a pelvis, some rib fragments and part of a femur. The pelvis is far more humanlike than apelike.


     Australopithecus aethiopicus, lived 2.7-2.3 million years ago, fossil remains found in Kenya in 1984. This species has a mixture of primitive and highly derived traits relative to an earlier species. A large ridge bone running along the top of the skull would indicate an area for the attachment of large chewing muscles.


     Australopithecus garhi, lived 2.5 million years ago. Fossil remains found in Ethiopia in 1997.  Scientists propose that this species made tools by chipping small pieces off of volcanic rock to form a sharp, scalloped edge.


     Australopithecus boisei, lived 2.3-1.4 million years ago. Fossil remains found in Tanzania in 1959. Like other species, this one had large teeth, up to two centimeters in length from front to back. It would have most likely eaten roots and nuts. The “Konso Skull”, found in Ethiopia in 1993 was the first specimen of A. boisei ever found. Scientists initially believed this species to be a direct human ancestor until Homo havilis was found nearby.


     Homo havilis, lived 2.3-1.6 million years ago. A controversial species discovered in the mid-1960’s is commonly called the handy man because of the many tools that have been found with the fossils. Scientists think that this species may have been capable of speech and is thought to have been about 5 feet tall and weigh about 100 pounds. The brain shape is also more human-like.


     Homo erectus, lived 1.8 million to 300,000 years ago. It is the first species to be found in more than one geographic region: Africa, Asia and Europe. Some of the other species related to Homo erectus are more familiar to us since they have received more news coverage over the years.


     “Dmanisi 2282” was found in the Republic of Georgia in 1999; “Turkana boy” was found in Kenya in 1984; “Java man” was found in Indonesia in 1891; “Peking man” was found in China in 1929; “Petralona 1” was found in Greece in 1969; “Tautavel man” was found in France in 1971. The skull of this species has mixed features and fossils consist of a fairly complete face, with five molars and part of a brain case.


     Australopithecus robustus, lived 1.8-1.5 million years ago. “TM 1517” was found in South Africa in 1938 and “Eurydice” was found in South Africa in 1994. Eurydice has the most complete early hominid skulls ever found and is the first significant fossil of a female. Stick-shaped animal bones may suggest that this species had used them for digging up roots or excavating termite mounds.


     Homo deidelbergensis lived 600,000-100,000 years ago. This species shares features with Homo erectus and anatomically with Homo sapiens.


     Homo neanderthalensis lived 250,000-30,000 years ago. This species had a protruding jaw, a receding forehead and a weak chin. Neanderthals lived mainly in cold climates. Their short, stocky bodies are similar in proportion to modern cold-adapted peoples; the men averaged about 5’6” in height. Their bones were thick and heavy and showed signs of powerful muscle attachments. Scientists theorize that Neanderthals roamed the earth for 70,000 years with Homo sapiens.


     Homo sapiens lived from 100,000 years ago to the present day. The modern form of Homo sapiens first appeared 100,000 years ago. A large brain size, a forehead that raises sharply, eyebrow ridges that are very small, a prominent chin and a lighter bone structure distinguish this species.


     And there you have it, the scientific view of the origins of humankind with the hominid family tree. A couple of things need to be pointed out concerning the above “tree”. One of them is that if one species is evolving into the next species why are there overlapping time periods?


     The time period of the homo neanderthalensis overlaps into the time period of the homo deidelbergensis by as much as 150,000 years. How can that possibly be? Another point to be made is that “scientists theorize that Neanderthals roamed the earth for 70,000 years with Homo sapiens.”


     What happened to the concept of one species evolving into the next? Even Darwin himself could not prove even the slightest fact of his theory. Within his book, the Origin of the Species, there are over 800 examples of supposition on his own theory, such as “if”, “maybe”, “possibly”, “might”, “perhaps”, “could”, and “conceivably”.


     When I was a young man in the 1960s and ‘70’s, it was popular for news programs to report stories of the “missing link” and Dr. Leaky. After 150 years of paleontological work, in literally all parts of the world, there has never been a fossil found that provides the link between humans and apes.


     In fact, the more fossils that scientists discover the more blurred the picture becomes. Darwin hypothesized that flying fish could, over long periods of time, evolve into flying birds. This was so preposterous, even to Darwin himself, that he wrote:


     “seeing that a few members of such water-breathing classes as the arveledi and mollusca are adapted to live on the land; and seeing that we have flying birds…it is conceivable that flying fish, which now glide far through the air, slightly rising and turning by the aid of their fluttering fins, might have been modified into perfectly winged animals.”


     The truth is that Darwin, for all of his education back in the mid-1800s, didn’t have a clue concerning the laws of genetics or heredity. Scientists have cut the tails off of mice for hundreds of generations of mice and not a single mouse has ever been born without a tail. This proves that acquired characteristics are never inherited by the next generation.


     You could cut the tail off of every newborn mouse from now until the year 3000 and mice would still be born with tails. Evolution is a lie. It’s a fraud. It is the only counterpoint that science has as a rebuttal to Biblical Creation. While Christianity can no more prove that God was born at 1328 Poplar Street, science cannot prove that the missing link can be found in a cave in Tanzania.


     On the other hand, evidence of a Biblical Creation can be found everywhere you look but you cannot look around and see animals or fish or humans in various stages of evolution. It is far easier to prove the existence of a Higher Authority than it is to prove evolution. This is all a moot point anyway.


     The purpose of expounding the theory of evolution as mandatory learning in our public school systems and elsewhere is simply to deny the existence of God and attribute His creation to the scientific laws of natural selection. Natural selection being the process that determines who will survive. The inferior ones will die off while the superior ones will live to reproduce.


     Satan is extremely intelligent, he is supernatural and he is very, very patient. He, too, has read Proverbs 22:6 which states:


     Proverbs 22:6 Train up a child in the way he should go: and when he is old, he will not depart from it.  


     Teach them when they are small, with minds that eagerly absorb everything, teach them that God does not exist, that evolution is the truth and it will be extremely difficult to make them believe differently when they get older.


     The science community cannot accept the fact that evolution is junk science and the reason that they won’t tell you that evolution is junk science is because when they were in college they were fed junk science from textbooks and professors and eventually they graduated and obtained their highly prized degrees, in junk science.


     And then they went on to create their own version of junk science so as to obtain government grants and university funds to further study junk science and when the criticism began to mount because there was no real substance to their research they went out and created fake science and fake evidence to back up their most popular theories.


     Do you think that I’m making baseless accusations? If you do then let’s consider the Piltdown Man. The year was 1912. The man was Charles Dawson. The Piltdown man was supposed to be the missing link between apes and humans and was regarded as such for over 40 years.


     While Dawson and Woodward were excavating a site near Sussex, England, known as the Piltdown Quarry,  they found cranial bones and part of a jaw bone and concluded that they had discovered the Eoanthropus, the Dawn Man even though it was pointed out that the jaw bone was quite similar to that of an ape.


     Guess what? It did belong to an ape and the cranial bones belonged to a human. The Dawn Man of Piltdown turned out to be an elaborate hoax. The fossil remains were crudely disguised to make them appear that they were millions of years old. What really is so disgusting about the science community is that they readily believed in the authenticity of the fossils. Learned men of their time; duped by the county attorney and amateur anthropologist, Charles Dawson.


     In 1922 the director of the American Museum of Natural History found a fossilized molar tooth in a dig in Nebraska near Snake Brook. From this one tooth, the science community constructed the Nebraska Man. From this one tooth, they constructed a head and body for this man and even made drawings picturing him with his wife and children.


     They gave him a very special scientific name of Hesperopithecus haroldcooki (Doesn’t that last word look like Harold Cook?) In 1927, after further excavations at the site, additional skeletal bones were found and it came to light that this tooth was neither from a man or an ape but that of an extinct species of wild American pig.


     This statement from Dr. Tim White, anthropologist, University of California, Berkeley in 1983:


     “A five million-year-old bone that was thought to be a collarbone of a humanlike creature is actually part of a dolphin rib….The problem with a lot of anthropologists is that they want so much to find a hominid that any scrap of bone becomes a hominid bone.”


     In 1984, a skull that was found in Spain, and later identified as the skull of a donkey, was touted as being a fossil of a man in Eurasia.


     In 1999 the National Geographic Magazine published an article on the Archaeoraptor fossil found in China. It was purported to be the “missing link” between birds and terrestrial theropod dinosaurs. In actuality, the fossil was constructed from rearranged pieces of real fossils from different species. In 2002, a further study found that the tail belonged to a primitive bird called a Yanornis and the leg and feet to an unknown animal.


     Controversy continues because creationists, like me, use it for ammunition to debunk many evolution theories. Do you think? Perhaps there really was a dinosaur that had feathers but who in their right mind is going to believe the science community at this point? And they make fun of us for believing in the Bible?


     Ever wonder why NASA is sending mechanical vehicles to mars to probe for evidence of water? It’s because of panspermia. Panspermia is the belief put forth by British astronomer Fred Hoyle in 1978 that life could not have started by natural processes on earth, so it must have started in outer space and the reason that human beings are here now is that simple life forms may have been brought to this planet by comets or meteors.


     One of the reasons that mars was chosen to be searched for life began in 1877 when the Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli first discovered what he thought to be “canals” on the surface. He believed that these “canals” had to have been made by some kind of intelligent life form.


     Turns out that William Hartmann, a Mars imaging scientist, explains the existence of the “canals” as rows of dust caused by wind on the leeward side of mountains and craters. Today we spend billions of dollars on research and remote-controlled rovers and NASA launch fees to send vehicles to that planet to investigate the possibility of life.


     A visit to a popular news website will give you these headlines of six articles in their SciTech/Evolution and Paleontology section:


     * Volcanoes may be original womb of life.


     * Life-from-space theory gets unseen boost.


     * More evidence that life started in space.


     * New hypothesis: Life could have started in layers of mica.


     * New fossils support deep-sea origin-of-life theory.


     * Origin of human nervous system found in sea sponges.


     Volcanoes, space, mica, the ocean and sea sponges may be the origin of human life on this earth. What happened to the primordial swamp in Africa? I thought that was where it all began? That’s what they used to teach us in school fifty years ago. It is blatantly obvious that even the science community can’t agree on the exact source from which life began. And this should come as no surprise; if you deny the existence of God then you have to look on this earth or space for our origin.


     Why is it so difficult for man to acknowledge the existence of God? Is it because it makes him feel inferior? That’s probably one reason. Another reason was briefly discussed in chapter one: the cherubim that covereth; the cherub that possesses an all-encompassing and overpowering desire to deceive the entire world.


     His complete devotion to this cause is fueled by his immense hatred for Almighty God. The only soul created by God, at this point in time, to be condemned for eternity. Satan. And he does his best work from the pulpits of our churches to the classrooms of our schools to the halls of Congress. His gifts to those that work for him are pleasure, greed and power. And he has no shortage of applications for employment.


     In 1995 a film was released by the name of The Usual Suspects and Kevin Spacey had a clever line in it that went: “the greatest thing that Satan has ever done is to convince the world that HE doesn’t exist”. More truthfully, I think that the line should read: “the greatest thing that Satan has ever done is to convince the world that GOD doesn’t exist."